1115 West Fifth Avenue
P.O. Box 600
Lancaster, Ohio 43130-0600
History of Anchor Hocking Glassware
Anchor Hocking Glassware has been one of the world's leading producers and marketers of glass tableware and ovenware for most of its nine decades in business. Acquisitions and mergers expanded the company's interests into glass containers, plastics, and hardware, increasing annual sales to a peak of more than $900 million in the early 1980s, but intense competition forced Anchor Hocking to sell out to the Newell Co. in 1987. The various operations that made up Anchor Hocking before the merger contributed $440 million to Newell's 1994 sales of $2.08 billion. The sales of the Anchor Hocking Glassware unit were estimated to make up $150 million of that figure.
The company's roots can be traced to 1905, when founder Ike Collins convinced a group of seven investors led by E. B. Good to contribute to the Hocking Glass Company's original capitalization of $25,000. By the end of its first year of manufacturing and marketing lamp chimneys and other glass items, the company had generated sales of $20,000, offered its first dividend, and acquired the equipment of a defunct competitor. Technological innovation helped promote speedy growth in those early days. Within its first year, the company upgraded its facilities to incorporate new continuous furnace technology, as opposed to outdated day-tank operations. By 1919, Hocking boasted 300 employees (many of them highly skilled glass blowers) and $900,000 in annual sales, and had diversified from lamp chimneys (which were made obsolete by the invention of the incandescent light bulb) into glass tableware.
Even a disastrous fire, which destroyed the Lancaster, Ohio, plant and offices in 1924, could not hinder the company's progress. Engineer William V. Fisher, who had been hired in 1919 and would go on to become company president, decided that this was the perfect time to build a new, state-of-the-art plant. The rebuilt factory featured gravity-fed glass tanks and small-batch feeders that provided flexibility, especially in the area of color changes. Fisher also worked with a local machinist to develop a device that would automatically manufacture pressed, rather than hand-blown, pieces. As a 1965 corporate memoir declared, it was "a turning point in Hocking Glass history." Automation expanded Hocking Glass's rate of production from one piece per minute to 20, then to 35. By 1928, the company had introduced a full array of pressed, colored dinnerware. These inexpensive manufacturing methods would become a company hallmark, and propel it to the forefront of the glass tableware market.
In order to remain competitive during the Great Depression, Hocking's Fisher developed a machine that could manufacture 90 glasses per minute at half the previous cost. Technological advances such as this enabled the company to gain an advantage over competitors. In 1931 Hocking entered the glass container market with the acquisition of Turner Glass Company, which was renamed General Glass Corporation. Fisher turned his engineering expertise to this new aspect of the business, developing lightweight glass jars and tumblers in 1932.
In 1937 the Hocking Glass Company merged with the Anchor Cap Corporation of Long Island, New York, creating a powerful force in the glass container industry, with sales of $21.5 million in 1938. The unified firm went on to convert the baby food industry, among others, from tin packaging to the now-familiar glass jar. Vertical consolidation through acquisition over the ensuing years expanded or established capabilities in glass containers, closures, cartons, mold equipment, and closure machines. The company even built a 38-mile natural gas pipeline to supply its growing energy needs in the 1940s.
The company's lines of inexpensive glassware were expanded as well. In 1944 Anchor acquired Carr-Lowrey Glass Co., a 55-year-old Maryland manufacturer of small specialty bottles for the cosmetics and toiletries markets. Other glass products included automotive lenses and reflectors. By the 1960s, Anchor Hocking was producing more than 2,500 different items and adding hundreds of new products and designs each year. These were sold in supermarkets and mass merchandise chains and were used as premiums by fast food chains, gas stations, and banks. The Anchor Hocking brand enjoyed a strong reputation among price- and quality-conscious consumers.
Anchor Hocking benefitted from the rapid growth of the container industry in the 1960s. More than three decades after William Fisher had first developed the non-returnable bottle, rapidly rising consumption of soft drinks and beer led to increased profitability. Anchor Hocking ranked among the top three producers of glass containers nationwide, as well as retaining its leading position in glass tableware. Annual sales topped $150 million by 1963, and profits reached more than $6 million.
The company formalized its overseas operations around this time as well, establishing an International Division in 1963. With operations in 105 countries in 1965, the company became the world's leading manufacturer of glass tableware and ovenware.
In spite of its indisputable success in the 1960s--sales and profits increased to $199 million and $10.38 million, respectively, by 1967--Anchor Hocking began to be criticized for managerial conservatism. Bill Fisher, who had succeeded founder Ike Collins as president, was honored for his many contributions to the company, but was also viewed by some as an aging symbol of that conservatism. Some observers pointed out that the company's risk-averse leadership had never officially taken on debt, while others criticized the company's lack of a coherent succession plan. In 1961 Anchor Hocking's board of directors recruited an outsider, John L. Gushman, to breathe new life into Anchor Hocking's corporate strategy.
Gushman succeeded to the chief executive office in 1967 and quickly set a new course for the company. A subtle, but telling name change in 1969, when the company dropped the word "Glass" from its title, signaled the transformation that was to come. Over the course of Gushman's first decade in office, Anchor Hocking experienced a comprehensive turnover of managers and acquired nine companies. In 1968 Anchor acquired Plastics, Inc., a top manufacturer of disposable tableware for the airline industry, through an exchange of shares, giving Anchor a "hedge" in the container market, where injection-molded plastic packaging had begun to replace many glass packages. In 1975 the company acquired Amerock Corp., the leading U.S. producer of cabinet and window hardware, for $32 million from the Stanley Works. Gushman financed these purchases with more than $35 million in long-term debt. A modernization program that included automation helped reduce operating costs in an era of rising labor expenditures. Centralized distribution at a massive warehouse (the largest in the U.S. glass industry) also reduced expenses.
Although sales increased steadily from $293.2 million in 1970 to $411 million in 1974, earnings did not follow suit, peaking at $20.7 million in 1972, then declining to $18.7 million in 1973 and $16.3 million in 1974. Industry analysts blamed short supplies of raw materials, surging fuel costs, and a 10-week strike, which combined with price controls and "stagflation" to squeeze profit margins. Fuel expenses alone shot up 25 percent during this period. The middle of the decade brought good news, however, when both supplies of raw materials and demand for glass containers briefly rebounded.
Nonetheless, Anchor Hocking's return on equity had dropped from 17.2 percent in 1969 to nine percent in 1974, far short of the 16 percent average for all industries. In 1975 company leaders set their sights on recovering that level of return. As plastic bottles and lightweight aluminum cans quickly replaced glass throughout the packaging industry, especially in the beverage sector, Anchor Hocking struggled in the early 1980s to maintain any level of return, let alone a double-digit percentage.
J. Ray Topper, an Anchor Hocking executive since 1971, succeeded Gushman as president in the late 1970s and assumed the role of chief executive officer in 1982. Although Topper decreased Anchor Hocking's dependence on the rapidly declining glass container market from over 60 percent of annual sales to just over one-third, the company's annual return from 1975 to 1982 averaged a meager one percent. In 1982 the company elected to divest its $300 million container division--dubbed an "albatross" in a May 1983 Forbes article&mdashø Wesray Corp. for a mere $68 million. Anchor walked away from the deal with $55 million in cash, only to attract the unwanted advances of corporate raider Carl Ichan. By mid-1982, Ichan had accumulated six percent of the undervalued, cash-rich firm. Anchor maintained its independence only by buying back his shares at 35 percent more than their book value. The company subsequently adopted a "poison pill plan" in an attempt to deter future takeover attempts.
The divestment left Anchor Hocking with a strong focus on consumer goods, including plastic dinnerware and food storage containers, decorative hardware, and its traditional glassware. More than one industry observer predicted that Topper's decision to shed the glass packaging division would bring a swift turnaround. However, intense competition from imported glassware and a strong dollar hammered Anchor's earnings both domestically and abroad. The company lost more than $4 million in 1983 and nearly $19 million in 1984 despite sales growth from $678 million to nearly $713 million during that same period. The company closed a major glassware plant in its hometown of Lancaster, Ohio, in 1985, eliminating 650 employees in the process.
Anchor's readily apparent weaknesses brought a new takeover threat, this time from Newell Co., a burgeoning housewares manufacturer. Daniel Ferguson, chief executive officer and son of one of Newell's four founders, had formulated a program of expansion through acquisition that had given the company a seemingly diverse collection of manufacturing subsidiaries ranging from Mirro brand cookware to BernzOmatic propane torches. Newell's acquisitions were united by their distribution through mass merchandisers and their leading positions in their respective product categories.
Neither Anchor's size--over twice Newell's--nor J. Ray Topper's clear aversion to selling out deterred Newell. When negotiations with Topper proved fruitless, Ferguson went over the CEO's head to Anchor's board of directors and shareholders. In 1986 Anchor accepted a so-called "friendly" $338.2 million offer ($32 per share). Topper, who reportedly wept at the deciding shareholders' meeting, and more than 100 other Anchor executives and headquarters personnel were sacked within a week of the merger's approval.
Ferguson himself took charge of Anchor Hocking, applying his customary post-purchase measures--known internally as "Newellization"&mdashø the new acquisition. First, the CEO focused on selling off non-core divisions like packaging products, food services, and a retail chain, and applying the proceeds to acquisition-related debt. Next, he installed new managers who were already acclimated to Newell's high standards of customer service and fiscal performance. The parent split Anchor Hocking's remaining operations into separate subsidiaries: Anchor Hocking Glassware, Anchor Hocking Plastics, and Plastics Inc., all of which were added to the parent's housewares division, and Amerock Corp., which became part of Newell's hardware division. Newell centralized Anchor Hocking Glassware's administrative offices at the corporate headquarters in Illinois, and consolidated all manufacturing at Lancaster, Ohio, which reduced capacity and tightened supply in the process. Although Anchor's annual sales dropped by about one-third to $100 million as a result, the subsidiary was left with more efficient operations.
In 1992 a reinvigorated Anchor Hocking Glassware was able to acquire the assets of Toscany Co., a bankrupt manufacturer of upscale glassware. Known as Anchor Hocking Specialty Glassware after the merger, Toscany gave Anchor access to high-end retailers like Macy's, May Co., Williams-Sonoma, and the Pottery Barn. Anchor maintained Toscany's exclusive image by resisting the temptation to offer the brand in its mass merchandising outlets. Anchor Hocking Glassware also launched new lines of its own featuring popular licensed cartoon characters and fashion colors. Ovenware, including pieces specially designed for use in microwave ovens, were also introduced. New sales programs, some of which were formulated in concert with mass merchandisers like Kmart and Wal-Mart, included point-of-purchase displays, gift with purchase promotions, and special packaging.
Despite a relatively high rate of turnover in top positions (Anchor Glassware had as many presidents from 1986 to 1995 as it had had in its entire pre-merger history), Anchor's businesses appear to be thriving under their new management, which has worked to trim expenses, boost product development, and improve retail distribution.
Related information about Anchor
A device which prevents a vessel from drifting. The flukes or
arms of an anchor dig into the seabed, thus resisting a horizontal
pull; it is made fast to the ship by a heavy cable, usually of
studded chain. There are two basic types: the old-fashioned anchor
with a stock, usually depicted on badges and flags; and the modern,
more common, stockless anchor. The stockless anchor consists of a
shank and a crown, which are free to move in relation to each
other, so that when in use the flukes will adopt an angle of about
45属 to the shank. When stowed, the flukes are parallel to the
An anchor is a heavy object, often made out of metal, that
is used to attach a ship to the bottom of a body of water at a
specific point. A temporary anchor is usually carried by the
vessel, and hoisted aboard whenever the vessel is under way; A
anchor(q.v.) is a related device used when the water
depth makes using a mooring or temporary anchor impractical.
An anchor works by resisting the movement force of the vessel which
is attached to it. It may seem logical to think wind and currents
are the largest forces an anchor must overcome, but actually the
vertical movement of waves develop the largest loads, and modern anchors are
designed to use a combination of technique and shape to resist all
An interesting element of anchor jargon is the term aweigh,
which describes the anchor when it is hanging on the rope, not on
the bottom; An anchor is described as aweigh when it has
been broken out of the bottom and is being hauled up to be
The earliest anchors were probably rocks and many rock anchors
have been found dating from at least the Bronze Age. trying to move a
large enough rock to another bay is nearly impossible.
A simple anchor using a pair of wood arms under a rock mass is a
primitive anchor which is still in use today. Almost all future
anchor developments combine these two elements?a penetrating point
and a reasonable mass.
In the western world the vast majority of anchors worked on the
concept of the grappling hook?multiple points on arms such that at
least one will be aimed toward the bottom. Suddenly the concept of
the stock, a bar placed perpendicular to the hooking arm at the
other end of the shank which would roll the anchor over so the
point would penetrate the bottom, was developed and within a single
century became the standard anchor type.
In the East, however, another model of anchor had been known for
some time which also used a stock, but with the stock located at
the crown along with the arm.
Designs of temporary anchors
A modern temporary anchor usually consists of a central bar
called the shank, and an armature with some form of flat
surface (fluke or palm) to grip the bottom and a
point to assist penetration of the bottom; There are many
variations and additions to these basic elements?for example, the
whole class of anchors which include a stock such as the
The range of designs is wide, but there are actually trends in
designs for modern anchors which allow them to be classed as
hook, plow, and fluke types, depending on the method
by which they set.
Hook designs use a relatively small fluke surface on a
heavy, narrow arm to penetrate deeply into problematic bottoms
such as rocky, heavy kelp or eel grass, coral, or hard sand. Two
of the more common versions of this design are the fisherman and the
Plow designs are reminiscent of the antique farm plow,
and are designed to bury themselves in the bottom as force is
applied to them, and are considered good in most bottom
conditions from soft mud to rock. Although they have less ability
to penetrate and are designed to reset rather than turn, their
light weight makes them very popular.
In the past 20 years or so, many new anchor designs have
appeared. Driven by the popularity of private pleasure boats, these
anchors are usually designed for small to medium sized vessels, and
are usually not appropriate for large ships. The anchor is popular
as the ultimate storm anchor, and has a good reputation for use in
rock, hard bottoms, and kelp or eel grass covered bottoms. The
three piece versions can be stowed quite compactly, and most
versions include a folding stock so the anchor may be stowed flat
The primary weakness of the design is its ability to foul the cable
over changing tides. In comparison tests the fisherman design
developed much less resistance than other anchors of similar
weight. It is difficult to bring aboard without scarring the
topsides, and does not stow in a hawse pipe or over an anchor
A fouled kedge or killick features on the badges of RN non-commissioned
The most common commercial brand is the Danforth, which is
sometimes used as a generic name for the class. some anchor rollers
and hawse pipes can accommodate a fluke-style anchor. A few
high-performance designs are available, such as the Fortress, which
are lighter in weight for a given area and in tests have shown
better than average results.
The fluke anchor has difficulty penetrating kelp and weed-covered
bottoms, as well as rocky and particularly hard sand or clay
bottoms. If there is much current or the vessel is moving while
dropping the anchor it may "kite" or "skate" over the bottom due to
the large fluke area acting as a sail or wing. Once set, the anchor
tends to break out and reset when the direction of force changes
dramatically, such as with the changing tide, and on some occasions
it might not reset but instead drag. It is not unknown for the
anchor to foul on its own rode, or to foul the tines with refuse
from the bottom, preventing it from digging in. The CQR design has
a hinged shank, allowing the anchor to turn with direction changes
rather than breaking out, and also arranged to force the point of
the plow into the bottom if the anchor lands on its side. Both can
be stored in most regular anchor roller systems.
Owing to the use of lead or other dedicated tip-weight, the plow is
heavier than average for the amount of resistance developed, and
may take a slightly longer pull to set thoroughly. It cannot be
stored in a hawse pipe.
The genuine CQR and Delta brands are now owned by Lewmar, although
they have both been on-sold several times during their
Bruce / Claw
Claimed by the inventor to be based on a design used for
anchoring floating oil derricks in the North Sea, the Bruce and its copies, known
generically as "claws", have become a popular option for smaller
boaters. They cannot be used with hawse pipes.
Bruce Anchor Group no longer produce the genuine anchor and the
only options are knock-offs, mostly inferior in build quality.
In recent years there has been something of a spurt in anchor
design. Primarily designed to set very quickly, then generate
superior holding power, these anchors (mostly proprietary
inventions still under patent) are finding homes with users of
small to medium sized vessels.
- The German designed B端gel, first built by steel
producer WASI, has a sharp tip for penetrating weed, and features
a roll-bar which orients the anchor to the correct attitude on
- The Bulwagga is a unique design featuring three flukes
instead of the regular two. Manufacturer's website
- The New Zealand designed Rocna is a new anchor gaining
popularity amongst cruisers. Its roll-bar is similar to that of
the B端gel, and means the correct setting attitude is achieved
without the need for extra weight to be inserted into the tip (an
inefficiency common in other anchor types). The anchor needs to
hold the vessel in all weathers, including the most severe
storm, but only
occasionally, or never, needs to be lifted, only for example if
the vessel is to be towed into port for maintenance. An
alternative to using an anchor under these circumstances may be
to use a pile driven into the seabed.
Permanent anchors come in a wide range of types and have no
standard form. Modern moorings may be anchored by sand screws
which look and act very much like over-sized screws drilled
into the seabed, or by barbed metal beams pounded in (or even
driven in with explosives) like pilings, or a variety of other
non-mass means of getting a grip on the bottom. One method of
building a mooring is to use three or more temporary anchors
laid out with short lengths of chain attached to a swivel, so
no matter which direction the vessel moves one or more anchors
will be aligned to resist the force.
A mushroom anchor will normally sink in the silt to the point
where it has displaced its own weight in bottom material. These
anchors are only suitable for a silt or mud bottom, since they
rely upon suction and cohesion of the bottom material, which
rocky or coarse sand bottoms lack. The holding power of this
anchor is at best about twice its weight unless it becomes
buried, when it can be as much as ten times its weightwww.inamarmarine.com/pdf/Moorings.pdf. Consequently
deadweight anchors are used where mushroom anchors are
unsuitable, for example in rock, gravel or coarse sand. An
advantage of a deadweight anchor over a mushroom is that if it
does become dragged, then it continues to provide its original
holding force. The disadvantage of using deadweight anchors in
conditions where a mushroom anchor could be used is that it
needs to be around ten times the weight of the equivalent
ScrewScrew anchors can be used to anchor permanent
moorings, floating docks, fish farms, etc.
These anchors must be screwed into the seabed with the use of a
tool, so require access to the bottom, either at low tide or by
use of a diver.
Weight for weight, screw anchors have a higher holding than
other permanent designs, and so can be cheap and relatively
easily installed, although may not be ideal in extremely soft
Anchoring gearThe elements of anchoring gear include
the anchor, the cable (also called a rode), the method
of attaching the two together, the method of attaching the
cable to the ship, charts, and a method of learning the depth
of the water.
Charts are vital to good anchoring. One can get by without
referring to charts, but they are an important tool and a part
of good anchoring gear, and a skilled mariner would not choose
to anchor without them.
The depth of water is necessary for determining scope,
which is the ratio of length of cable to the depth measured
from the highest point (usually the anchor roller or bow chock)
to the seabed. For example, if the water is 25ft (8m) deep, and
the anchor roller is 3ft (1m) above the water, the scope is the
ratio between the amount of cable let out and 28ft (9m).
A cable or rode is the rope, chain, or combination thereof used
to connect the anchor to the vessel. Generally speaking, most
anchors will hold well in sandy mud, mud and clay, or firm
sand. Rock, coral, and shale prevent anchors from digging in,
although some anchors are designed to hook into such a bottom.
Grassy bottoms may be good holding, but only if the anchor can
penetrate the bottom. You need enough depth for your vessel
throughout the range it might swing, at low tide, not just
where you drop the anchor. However, no matter where you anchor
you need to consider what the largest possible swing range will
be, and what obstacles and hazards might be within that range.
Boats on permanent moorings, or shorter scope, may not swing as
far as you expect them to, or may swing either more rapidly or
more slowly than your vessel (all-chain cables tend to swing
more slowly than all-rope or chain-and-rope cables.)
There are techniques of anchoring to limit the swing of a
vessel if the anchorage has limited room.
MethodsThe basic anchoring consists of determining the
location, dropping the anchor, laying out the scope, setting
the hook, and assessing where the vessel ends up. there may be
other boats whose crew thought that would be a good spot, or
weather conditions may be different from those expected, or
even additional hazards not noted on the chart may make a
planned location undesirable.
If the location is good, the location to drop the anchor should
be approached from down wind or down current, whichever is
stronger. The anchor should be lowered quickly but under
control until it is on the bottom. The vessel should continue
to drift back, and the cable should be veered out under control
so it will be relatively straight.
Once the desired scope is laid out (a minimum of 8:1 for
setting the anchor, and 5:1 for holding, though the preferred
ratio is 10:1 for both setting, and holding power), the vessel
should be gently forced astern, usually using the auxiliary
motor but possibly by backing a sail. A hand on the anchor line
may telegraph a series of jerks and jolts, indicating the
anchor is dragging, or a smooth tension indicative of digging
in. If the anchor continues to drag, or sets after having
dragged to far, it should be retrieved and moved back to the
desired position (or another location chosen.)
With the anchor set in the correct location, everything should
be reconsidered. Is the bottom a suitable holding ground, and
is the anchor the right one for this type of bottom? Will
another vessel swing into us, or will we swing into another
vessel, when the tide or wind changes?
Some other techniques have been developed to reduce swing, or
to deal with heavy weather.
- Forked moor
- Bow and Stern
- Bahamian moor
- Backing an anchor
Forked moorUsing two anchors set approximately 45属
apart, or wider angles up to 90属, from the bow is a strong
mooring for facing into strong winds. To set anchors in this
way, first one anchor is set in the normal fashion. Then,
taking in on the first cable as the boat is motored into the
wind and letting slack while drifting back, a second anchor is
set approximately a half-scope away from the first on a line
perpendicular to the wind. After this second anchor is set, the
scope on the first is taken up until the vessel is lying
between the two anchors and the load is taken equally on each
This moor also to some degree limits the range of a vessel's
swing to a narrower oval.
Bow and sternNot to be mistaken with the Bahamian
In the Bow and Stern technique, an anchor is set off
each the bow and the stern, which can severely limit a vessel's
swing range and also align it to steady wind, current or wave
conditions. One method of accomplishing this moor is to set a
bow anchor normally, then drop back to the limit of the bow
cable (or to double the desired scope, e.g. By taking up on the
bow cable the stern anchor can be set. After both anchors are
set, tension is taken up on both cables to limit the swing or
to align the vessel. One of the primary characteristics of this
technique is the use of a swivel as follows: the first anchor
is set normally, and the vessel drops back to the limit of
anchor cable. A second anchor is attached to the end of the
anchor cable, and is dropped and set. A swivel is attached to
the middle of the anchor cable, and the vessel connected to
The vessel will now swing in the middle of two anchors, which
is acceptable in strong reversing currents but a wind
perpendicular to the current may break out the anchors as they
are not aligned for this load. With the leading anchor holding
the cable down and the tension between the anchors taking load
off, this technique can develop great holding power and has
been used in "ultimate storm" circumstances.
Kedging is a technique for moving or
turning a ship by using a relatively light anchor known as a
In yachts, a kedge anchor is one or more anchors carried in
addition to the main, or bower anchors, and usually stowed aft.
Every yacht should carry at least two anchors - the main or
bower anchor and a second lighter kedge anchor.
It is used occasionally when it is necessary to limit the
turning circle as the yacht swings when it is anchored, such as
in a very narrow river or a deep pool in an otherwise shallow
For ships, a kedge may be dropped while a ship is underway, or
carried out in a suitable direction by a tender or ship's boat
to enable the ship to be winched off if aground or swung into a
particular heading, or even to be held steady against a tidal
or other stream.
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